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Amongst the following compounds, identify which are insoluble, partially soluble and highly soluble in water?

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Amongst the following compounds, identify which are insoluble, partially soluble and highly soluble in water?

(i) phenol

(ii) toluene

(iii) formic acid

(iv) ethylene glycol

(v) chloroform

(vi) pentanol.

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(i) Phenol (C6H5OH) has the polar group -OH and non-polar group -C6H5. Thus, phenol is partially soluble in water.

(ii) Toluene (C6H5-CH3) has no polar groups. Thus, toluene is insoluble in water.

(iii) Formic acid (HCOOH) has the polar group -OH and can form H-bond with water. Thus, formic acid is highly soluble in water.

(iv) Ethylene glycol figure.png has polar -OH group and can form H-bond. Thus, it is highly soluble in water.

(v) Chloroform is insoluble in water.

(vi) Pentanol (C5H11OH) has polar -OH group, but it also contains a very bulky non-polar -C5H11 group. Thus, pentanol is partially soluble in water.

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