(a) Dialysis: The procedure used for cleaning the blood of a person by separating the urea from it is called dialysis. The patients with kidney failure are put on dialysis.
(b) Principle of Dialysis: The blood from an artery in the patients arm is made to flow into the dialyser of a dialysis machine made of long tubes of selective permeable membrane (like cellulose) which are coiled in a tank containing dialysing Solution. The dialysing Solution contains water, glucose and salts in similar concentrations to those in normal blood. As the patient’s blood passes through the dialysing Solution most of the waste like urea present in it pass through the selectively permeable cellulose tubes into the dialysing Solution. The clean blood is pumped back into a vein of the patients arm.