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Define aneuploidy. How is it different from polyploidy? Describe the individuals having the following chromosomal abnormalities.

  

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Define aneuploidy. How is it different from polyploidy? Describe the individuals having the following chromosomal abnormalities.

(a) Trisomy of 21st chromosome

(b) XXY

(c) XO

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Failure of segregation of chromatids during cell division cycle results in the gain or loss of a chromosome(s), called aneuploidy.

Difference between aneuploidy and polyploidy

1. Failure of segregation of chromatids during cell division cycle results in the gain or loss of a chromosome(s), called aneuploidy. Failure of cytokinesis after telophase stage of cell division results in an increase in a whole set of chromosomes in an organism and, this phenomenon is known as polyploidy.

2. Polyploidy occurs due to altering set of chromosome number such as 2n, 3n, 5n, whereas aneuploidy occurs due to altering particular chromosome or part of a chromosome such as 2n + 1 (trisomic) and 2n – 1 (monosomic).

3. Aneuploidy can be seen in human as genetic disorders; for example, Tuner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome and Down syndrome, whereas polyploidy is common in plants.

(i) Down’s Syndrome (Mongolism)

  • The cause of this genetic disorder-is the presence of an additional copy of the chromosome number 21 (trisomy of 21) due to non-disjunction of chromosomes during sperm or ova formation.
  • The affected individual is short statured with small round head, furrowed tongue and partially open mouth. Palm is broad with characteristic palm crease.
  • Physical, psychomotor and mental development is retarded.

(ii) Klinefelter’s Syndrome

  • This genetic disorder is also caused due to the presence of an additional copy of X-chromosome resulting into a karyotype of 47, XXY.
  • Such an individual has overall masculine development, however, the feminine development (development of breast, i.e., Gynaecomastia) is also expressed. Such individuals are sterile male.

(iii) Turner’s Syndrome Such a disorder is caused due to the absence of one of the X chromosomes, i.e., 45 with XO. Such females are sterile as ovaries are rudimentary besides other features including lack of other secondary sexual characters.

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